Important Banking Terminology:
1) Basis points: It is the increase in interest rates in percentage terms. For instance, if the interest rate increases by 50 basis points (bsp), then it means that interest rate has been increase by 0.50%. One percentage point is broken down into 100 basis points. Therefore, an increase from 2% to 3% is an increase of one percentage point or 100 basis points.
2) Bank Rate: Bank Rate is the rate at which central bank of the country (in India it is RBI) allows finance to commercial banks. Bank Rate is a tool, which central bank uses for short-term purposes. Any upward revision in Bank Rate by central bank is an indication that banks should also increase deposit rates as well as Base Rate / Benchmark Prime Lending Rate. Thus any revision in the Bank rate indicates that it is likely that interest rates on your deposits are likely to either go up or go down, and it can also indicate an increase or decrease in your EMI.
3) Liquidity adjustment facility (LAF) is a monetary policy tool which allows banks to borrow money through repurchase agreements. LAF is used to aid banks in adjusting the day to day mismatches in liquidity. LAF consists of repo and reverse repo operations.
4) Repo Rate: Whenever the banks have any shortage of funds they can borrow it form RBI. Repo rate is the rate at which commercial banks borrows rupees from RBI. A reduction in the repo rate will help banks to get money at cheaper rate. When the repo rate increases borrowing form RBI becomes more expensive.
5) Reverse Repo Rate: Reverse Repo rate is the rate at which RBI borrows money from commercial banks. Banks are always happy to lend money to RBI since their money is in the safe hands with a good interest. An increase in reverse repo rate can cause the banks to transfer more funds to RBI due to this attractive interest rates. One factor which encourages an organisation to enter into reverse repo is that it earns some extra income on its otherwise idle cash.
6) CRR (Cash Reverse Ratio): CRR is the amount of funds that the banks have to keep with RBI. If RBI increases CRR, the available amount with the banks comes down. RBI is using this method (increase of CRR), to drain out the excessive money from the banks.
7) SLR (Statutory Liquidity Ratio): SLR is the amount a commercial banks needs to maintain in the form of cash, or gold, or govt. approved securities (Bonds) before providing credit to its customers. SLR rate is determined and maintained by RBI in order to control the expansion of the bank credit.
Need of SLR: With the SLR, the RBI can ensure the solvency of a commercial banks. It is also helpful to control the expansion of the Bank credits. By changing SLR rates, RBI can increase or decrease bank credit expansion. Also through SLR, RBI compels the commercial banks to invest in the government securities like govt. bonds.
Main use of SLR: SLR is used to control inflation and propel growth. Through SLR rate the money supply in the system can be controlled effectively.
8) Marginal Standing Facility (MSF): MSF rate is the rate at which banks borrow funds overnight from the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) against approved government securities.
9) NEFT (National Electronic Fund Transfer): NEFT enables funds transfer from one bank to another but works a bit differently than RTGS. NEFT is slower than RTGS. The transfer is not direct and RBI acts as the service provider to transfer the money from one account to another. You can transfer any amount through NEFT, even a rupee.
Note: Rs 50,000 is a limit in a NEFT to NEPAL in a single day.
10) RTGS (Real time gross settlement ): RTGS system is funds transfer systems where transfer of money or securities takes place from one bank to another on a "real time" and on "gross" basis. Settlement in "real time" means payment transaction is not subjected to any waiting period. The transactions are settled as soon as they are processed. Minimum & Maximum Limit of RTGS: 2 lakh and no upper limit.
11) Fiscal Deficit: A deficit in the government budget of a country and represents the excess of expenditure over income. So this is the amount of borrowed funds require by the government to meet its expenditures completely.
12) Direct Tax: A direct tax is that which is paid directly by someone to taxing authority. Income tax and property tax are an examples of direct tax. They are not shifted to somebody else.
13) Indirect Tax: This type of tax is not paid by someone to the authorities and it is actually passed on to the other in the form of increased cost. They are levied on goods and services produced or purchased. Excise Tax, Sales Tax, Vat, Entertainment tax are indirect taxes.
14) NOSTRO Account: A Nostro account is maintained by an Indian Bank in the foreign countries.
15) VOSTRO Account: A Vostro account is maintained by a foreign bank in India with their corresponding bank.
16) SDR (Special Drawing Rights): SDR are new form of International reserve assets, created by the International Monetary Fund in 1967. The value of SDR is based on the portfolio of widely used countries and they are maintained as accounting entries and not as hard currency or physical assets like Gold.
17) BOND: Publicly traded ling term debt securities issued by corporations and governments, whereby the issuer agrees to pay a fixed amount of interest over a specified period of time and to repay a fixed amount of principal maturity.
18) CRAR(Capital to Risk Weighted Assets Ratio): Capital to risk weighted assets ratio is arrived at by dividing the capital of the bank with aggregated risk weighted assets for credit risk, market risk and operational risk.
19) Non Performing Assets (NPA): An asset (loan), including a leased asset, becomes non performing when it stops generatig income for the bank. Note: Once the borrower has failed to make interest or principle payments for 90 days the loan is considered to be a non-performing asset.
20) Inflation: inflation is a rise in the general level of prices of goods and services in an economy over a period of time. When the general price level rises, each unit of currency buys fewer goods and services. Consequently, inflation reflects a reduction in the purchasing power per unit of money - a loss of real value in the medium of exchange and unit of account within the economy.
21) GDP - An estimated value of the total worth of a country’s production and services, within its boundary, by its nationals and foreigners, calculated over the course on one year.
Note: GDP = consumption + investment + (government spending) + (exports M imports). Total value of products & Services produced within the territorial boundary of a country.
22) GNP - An estimated value of the total worth of production and services, by citizens of a country, on its land or on foreign land, calculated over the course on one year.
Note: GNP = GDP + NR (Net income inflow from assets abroad or Net Income Receipts) - NP (Net payment outflow to foreign assets). Total value of Goods and Services produced by all nationals of a country (whether within or outside the country).
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