1. Races: A contest of speed in running, riding, driving, sailing or rowing is called a race.
2. Race Course: The ground or path on which contests are made is called a race course.
3. Starting Point: The point from which a race begins is known as a starting point.
4. Winning Point or Goal: The point set to bound a race is called a winning point or a goal.
5. Winner: The person who first reaches the winning point is called a winner.
6. Dead Heat Race: If all the persons contesting a race reach the goal exactly at the same time, the race is said to be dead heat race.
7. Start: Suppose A and B are two contestants in a race. If before the start of the race, A is at the starting point and B is ahead of A by 12 metres, then we say that 'A gives B, a start of 12 metres'.
To cover a race of 100 metres in this case, A will have to cover 100 metres while B will have to cover only (100 - 12) = 88 metres.
In a 100 race, 'A can give B 12 m' or 'A can give B a start of 12 m' or 'A beats B by 12 m' means that while A runs 100 m, B runs (100 - 12) = 88 m.
8. Games: 'A game of 100, means that the person among the contestants who scores 100 points first is the winner'.
If A scores 100 points while B scores only 80 points, then we say that 'A can give B 20 points'.