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Input – Output Reasoning Study Material Download PDF Free

The questions based on Input-Output are being asked in almost all kind of Banking Examinations on a regular basis. It is one of the most scoring questions in banking examination. The questions based on Input-Output aims to judge how quickly one can identify the rule applied in the arrangement of given Input Line of words or numbers cited as sample.

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In these type of question candidates are need to find out the specific pattern in the given arrangement and then determine the desired output step. These problems are not very difficult but they are time consuming if individual is not aware of the short tricks. Candidates can attain expertise in this type of questions through adequate practice.

Some Important Tricks:
  • First of all, Candidates should monitor the given Input Line of words or numbers carefully and the last step of rearrangement so that they can identify the changes appeared in various steps of rearrangement.
  • Candidates should observe at least two consecutive steps to identify the changes appeared in every step.
  • At last compare the input, the last step and any one of the middle Steps. It will enable to identify the rule of arrangement quickly.

Input Output
These are the problems that test your aptitude. You will be given some input and a machine (its working) using some examples. You have to study this working and accordingly process the data given to you.

In the questions related to this topic, you are expected to be the “machine”. You would be told what processing has to be done. You would be given the input, your job would be give the output in accordance to the input.

In the topic of input output there are primarily four types of operation that can be asked in a particular question. The four operations are as follows:

1. Ordering input according to given criteria, e.g. alphabetically, in increasing/decreasing order etc.
2. Mathematical Manipulations on the output which would in this case obviously be numerical. The operations could be doubling, squaring, adding.
3. Shifting or Interchanging positions of characters/alphabets/words etc., in the input according to questions e.g. ‘shift 1st character to last’ or ‘interchange 1st & last’ etc.
4. Others like making an alphabet capital, replacing alphabet by corresponding number etc.
So, which out of these is being used can be decided as:
• If words (of the input) do not change in the output after an operation, the operations is either reordering or shifting. In this case check for rearrangement first, if it is not the operations performed then check for shifting next.
• If words (of the input) do change in the output, the operation is either Mathematical (if numbers are used) or fall into category of other operations (if alphanumeric data is used).
Example 1) A computer rearranges a particular input using some operations 01, 02, 03, and 04.
               Input: I have long waited for your arrival.
            Step 01: arrival long have waited for your I
            Step 02: long arrival waited have for I your
            Step 03: Your waited arrival have for I long
            Step 04: Waited your have arrival for long I

If step 4 gives “I know you will not come back” what step will have “you back I come not will know”?
Solution: Since words remain unchanged here, so this is case of either rearrangement or shifting. So, let us number each word
I = 1, have = 2, long = 3, waited = 4, for = 5, your = 6, arrival = 7
Input:           1    2    3    4    5    6    7
Step 01:        7    3    2    4    5    6    1
Step 02:        3    7    4    2    5    1    6
Step 03:        6    4    7    2    5    1    3
Step 04:        4    6    2    7    5    3    1
So, the logic being following is as follows:-
Step 01 = Swap 1st & last; 2nd & 3rd
Step 02 = Swap 1st & 2nd, last two & 3rd and 4th
Step 03 = Swap 1st & last, 2nd & 3rd.
Step 04 = 1st & 2nd, last two, & 3rd and 4th.
Since after two steps operations again repeat and hence you can guess the 5th, 6th, 7th steps.
Step 04:    I know you will not come back
Step 05:    back you know will not come I
Step 06:    You back will know not I come
Step 07:    Come will back know not I you
Step 08:    Will come know back not you I
Step 09:    I know come back not you will
Step 10:    Know I back come not will you
Step 11:    You back I come not will know
Hence step 11 is the answer.

Questions asked in Previous Year Exams
Directions (Q. 1-4): Study the following information carefully and answer the given questions: (From IBPS PO/MT Exam 2012)
A word and number arrangement machine when given an input line of words and numbers rearranges them following a particular rule in each step. The following is an illustration of input and rearrangement. (All the numbers are two-digit numbers.)
Input: tall 48 13 rise alt 99 76 32 wise jar high 28 56 barn
Step I: 13 tall 48 rise 99 76 32 wise jar high 28 56 bam alt
Step II: 28 13 tall 48 rise 99 76 32 wise jar high 56 alt barn
Step III: 32 28 13 tall 48 rise 99 76 wise jar 56 alt barn high
Step IV: 48 32 28 13 tall rise 99 76 wise 56 alt barn high jar
Step V: 56 48 32 28 13 tall 99 76 wise alt barn high jar rise
Step VI: 76 56 48 32 28 13 99 wise alt barn high jar rise tall
Step VII: 99 76 56 48 32 28 13 alt barn high jar rise tall wise And Step VII is the last step of the above input, as the desired arrangement is obtained.
As per the rules followed in the above steps, find out in each of the following questions the appropriate step for the given input.
Input: 84 why sit 14 32 not best ink feet 51 27 vain 68 92 (All the numbers are two-digit numbers.)
1. Which step number is the following output?
32 27 14 84 why sit not 51 vain 92 68 feet best ink
1) Step V
2) Step VI
3) Step IV
4) Step III
5) There is no such step.
2. Which word/number would be at 5th position from the right in Step V?
1) 14
2) 92
3) feet
4) best
5) why
3. How many elements (words or numbers) are there between 'feet' and '32' as they appear in the last step of the output?
1) One
2) Three
3) Four
4) Five
5) Seven 
4. Which of the following represents the position of ‘why' in the fourth step?
1) Eighth from the left
2) Fifth from the right
3) Sixth from the left
4) Fifth from the left
5) Seventh from the left 
Solutions (For Qns 1-4):
The machine rearranges words and numbers in the following way. Numbers are being arranged from left side with the smallest number coming first and move subsequently so that in the last step numbers are arranged in descending order. The words are arranged from right side as they appear in English alphabetical order. 
Input: 84 why sit 14 32 not best ink feet 51 27 vain 68 92
Step I: 14 84 why sit 32 not ink feet 51 27 vain 68 92 best
Step II: 27 14 84 why sit 32 not ink 51 vain 68 92 best feet
Step III: 32 27 14 84 why sit not 51 vain 68 92 best feet ink
Step IV: 51 32 27 14 84 why sit vain 6892 best feet ink not
Step V: 68 51 32 27 14 84 why vain 92 best feet ink not sit
Step VI: 84 68 51 32 27 14 why 92 best feet ink not sit vain
Step VII: 92 68 84 51 32 27 14 best feet ink not sit vain why 
On the basis of above Output, The answers are : 
Ans 1. 5
Ans 2. 4 
Ans 3. 2; 27, 14 and best 
Ans 4. 3; Step IV: 51 32 27 14 84 why sit vain 68 92 best feet ink not
The position of 'why' in this step is sixth from the left end.

Input Output - MCQ
Directions (Q. 1-5): A word arrangement machine, when given an input line of words, rearranges them following a particular rule in each step. The following is the illustration of the Input and the steps of arrangement:
Input: man’s mood varies with time and environment
Step I: varies with man’s mood environment and time
Step II: and time environment mood man’s varies with
Step III: environment time and varies with mood man’s
Step-IV: and varies environment time man’s mood with
And so on for subsequent steps. You have to find out the logic and answer the questions given below.
1. If Step V reads “bees are king juice from colourful flowers”, what would Step III read?
(1) sucking are bees colourful flowers juice from
(2) colourful juice from bees sucking flowers are
(3) colourful flowers from Juice sucking bees are
(4) from juice colourful flowers are bees sucking
(5) None of these
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2. If Step III reads “old streets of Calcutta attract me lots”, what would be the arrangement for Step VII?
(1) me of old attract lots streets Calcutta
(2) lots attract me of Calcutta streets old
(3) streets old Calcutta of me lots attract
(4) Calcutta of streets old attract lots me
(5) None of these
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3. If Step IV reads “everyone were aware about their intimate friendship”, what will be the middle three words of Step II?
(1) their intimate aware
(2) aware intimate their
(3) everyone were friendship
(4) aware were intimate
(5) None of these
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4. If the given input is “he has learnt a lot from Krishna”, what will be Step VI?
(1) he a has from learnt lot Krishna
(2) has from he a Krishna lot learnt
(3) lot learnt Krishna a he has from
(4) Krishna a lot learnt from has he
(5) None of these
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5. Input: he is member of the dancing club. For the above input, which step will be the following arrangement? Arrangement: is of he the club dancing member.
(1) Step IV
(2) Step V
(3) Step VI
(4) Step III
(5) None of these


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